Types of tests and objects according to TR CU 001/2011
List of objects according to TR CU 001/2011:
- freight cars
- passenger cars, passenger coaches
- the motor car rolling stock
- diesel trains, railcars (rail buses), their wagons
- diesel electric train, their cars
- special rolling stock (self-propelled, non-self-propelled)
- locomotives, gas-turbine locomotives: trunk gas-turbine locomotive, shunting gas-turbine locomotive and industrial gas-turbine locomotive
- railway conveyors
- trunk electric locomotives: direct current, alternating current, double-system (direct and alternating current), their cars/ main electric locomotives: DC, AC, two-system (AC and DC), their carriages
- electric trains of a direct current, alternating current, double-system (direct and alternating current), their cars
- an automatic regulator of brake lever transfer
- bandages for the railway rolling stock
- brake shoes/pads of disk brakes of the railway rolling stock
- hydraulic dampers of the rolling stock
- compound, finishing and solid-rolled wheels
- cylindrical gear wheels
- wagon wheelsets, locomotive wheel sets of the motor-wagon rolling stock
- brake pads, cast iron for the rolling stock
- coupler, including the automatic coupler and its elements
- passenger chairs and driver’s seats
- finishing axes /draft, carriage, locomotive of the motor-wagon rolling stock\
- the device preventing rolling down by a skid of the rolling stock (brake shoe controller)
- carts of cargo and passenger coaches and its elements (frame side, a bolster beam)
- elements of the brake system of coaches
- the absorbing automatic coupling device
- air tanks
- typhons for locomotives and the motor-wagon rolling stock
- the wheeling, rolled, cast centers
- elements of lighting systems of passenger cars.
List of tests according to TR CU 001/2011:
1)Trial dynamic runs and tests of durability of the rolling stock
In the course of trial dynamic runs and tests of durability of the rolling stock
carry out assessment of technical condition of the main bearing knots and elements of a design of the rolling stock at action the standard and arising in use loadings with the subsequent comparison of results to the allowed settlement. Tests are carried out on the special ground.
At tests measure tension by means of modern high-precision attorneys of measuring instruments.
This type of tests allows to determine the following parameters (characteristics) of the rolling stock:
– coefficient of a stock of stability of the wagon from capsizing at the movement on curve sites of a way;
– coefficient of stability of wheel couple from a derailment;
– coefficient of a stock of resistance of fatigue of elements of a frame and body of the wagon
– coefficient of vertical dynamics and other.
2) Trial brake runs.
Trial brake runs are carried out for the purpose of determination of the actual length of a brake way and compliance to her requirements of the existing normative documents.
Trial brake runs carry out by method of the “throw” which is that at the movement of skilled structure with in advance chosen speed at the command of the head unhitching of the examinee of the wagon on in advance chosen direct site of a way is made
For carrying out trial brake runs the skilled train consisting of the locomotive, the wagon laboratory, equipped with the device which is capable to uncouple, and the tested wagon is formed.
In the course of carrying out trial brake runs define:
– speed of the skilled car at the time of the beginning of emergency brake application;
– length of a brake way of the wagon ;
– pressure in the brake highway before “throw”;
– pressure in brake cylinders of the wagon after “throw”;
– condition of a surface of driving of wheels and condition of brake shoes
Resource tests are a kind of fail-safe tests (with determination of durability). These tests can be carried out as independently, and during periodic tests depending on purpose of products.
Also a number of researches on parameters which are controlled at acceptance (preliminary) tests is conducted.
Complex of tests carry out at the special stand. Use of the stand allows to carry out the accelerated resource tests of a floor and frame of the rolling stock, the railroads to a short time, imitating at the same time the operational modes of loading taking place when performing loading and unloading operations.
The main objective of carrying out resource tests is a definition or assessment of a technical resource of the whole product or its separate elements.
4)Tests for impact of cars.
One of the main tests which are carried out by our experts at confirmation of compliance of wagons to requirements of normative documents are tests for impact of wagons. The purpose of these tests is determination of dynamic tension and their distribution in elements of a frame and a body, extreme sizes of longitudinal forces at which there can be a deformation o
f a frame or body of the car and also for assessment of compliance of characteristics of the absorbing automatic coupling device to the mass of the wagon and the allowed speed of impact of cars at operation.
Tests are carried out at the special stand hill. The special dynamometer automatic coupling with the tensoresistors installed on a case shaft is used to measurement of longitudinal force of blow via the automatic coupling.
When carrying out tests for durability at impacts are measured and registered:
– the actual dynamic tension in the studied points and sections of elements of the wagon;
– hammer wagon speed when it is rolled
– force of impact of the examinee of the hammer wagon.
5) Tests by determination of parameters of a microclimate of the car, coefficient of a heat transfer of a body, amount of the given air in the car and an air subtime in the car.
For determination of parameters of a microclimate of the wagon , coefficient of a heat transfer of a body, amount of the given air in the wagon and an air subtime in th
e wagon , measurements are taken at the movement of the wagon with an operational speed. Experts take direct measurements three times during the warm period and three times in cold to receive reliable result.
Definition a subtime of air is carried out by method of direct measurement of excessive pressure.
For measurements of speed of the movement of the air given to the car anemometers and thermoanemometers are used.
6) Tests by definition of noise and vibration of cars.
Measurements should be taken during preliminary or acceptance, standard, qualification and periodic tests.
In the course of tests will move assessment of noise level and vibration by means of the special data-acquisition equipment.
During preliminary or acceptance, qualification and standard tests at each position of the microphone and at each operating mode take al least three dimensions (counting). The arithmetic average of the received values rounded to the closest integer of decibels is considered result of measurements.
During preliminary or acceptance, qualification and standard tests at each arrangement of the microphone and each operating mode take three dimensions.
At periodic tests take only one measurement in the chosen points.
7) Tests by determination of illumination.
During tests the defined indicators of artificial lighting are: illumination, unevenness of illumination, brightness of scales of instrumentations, unevenness of brightness. Indicators of illumination and brightness in are defined by method of direct measurements, and unevenness of illumination and brightness – a calculation method.
In most cases one sample of the rolling stock is subject to tests.
Results of measurements of indicators of illumination and brightness of scales of instrumentations of the control panel in each point compare to standard value of an indicator.
8) Tests by determination of ergonomic parameters.
In the course of tests by determination of ergonomic parameters, assessment on compliance is carried out:
– plannings of a cabin of the driver and service premises, designs and configurations of jobs, configurations of devices and control units, means of display of information, the basic devices providing access to jobs and equipment maintenance;
– plannings of rooms for passengers and workers of railway transport (in transit the last to the venue of works and back), the basic devices providing access to the wagon .
Standard values of ergonomic indicators are set, proceeding from anthropometrical and biomechanical characteristics, psychophysiological opportunities of the person, for the purpose of providing safe conditions for passengers, safe and rational working conditions of service personnel.
Definition of ergonomic indicators is based on measurements of linear and angular parameters and also on carrying out tests by definition of indicators “A distance of observation of means of display of information” and “Time of free escape of a chair” with involvement of the persons possessing various anthropometrical characteristics. One sample of the rolling stock is subject to tests.
9) Tests by definition of a dimension of the rolling stock.
Dimension of the rolling stock – cross a perpendicular outline in which, without coming to light, has to be located established on the direct horizontal way (at the most adve
rse situation in a track and lack of side inclinations on springs and dynamic fluctuations) axes of a way both in empty, and in the loaded state the rolling stock including having most normalized deterioration.
An inspection of compliance of overall dimensions to a construction outline is carried out by method of rolling of the tested wagon through the working portal of a basic frame and measurement of distance from an internal contour of a basic frame to critical points of a body on all characteristic sections
Check compliance of the actual overall dimensions of constructive parts of samples of the wagon on their critical points is subject to the admissible sizes on a construction outline.
Each geometrical size of a subject to tests is determined by method of tool measurement by means of the measuring equipment by not less than three times. Take an arithmetic average for the actual value of the size value of results of measurements.
10) Tests by determination of geometrical parameters of the rolling stock, his elements.
During tests by determination of geometrical parameters of the rolling stock, his elements and also infrastructure elements, experts draw straight lines, the actual measurements, comparing the obtained data with drawings and also leaning on indicators, according to the standard standards.
Thanks to the exact measuring equipment and high qualification of workers any mistakes will be excluded. If the necessary equipment, then information on the carried-out tests has the test center will be reliable.
11) Stretching – compression of wagon.
One of main types of bench tests are tests for compression stretching. The modern domestic and import test equipment of the leading world brands which is available in laboratory allows to control the studied parameters in real time for expeditious adoption of design decisions.
The stand for tests of the rolling stock on stretching compression is intended for creation of test loads of a frame and a body of the tested rolling stock along an axis of his autocoupling device. The stand provides tests of the rolling stock with length on axes of coupling of automatic couplings to 28 m. The stretching stand – compression allows to carry out tests by the squeezing loading to 4 MH and the stretching loading to 2,5 MH.
12) Bench tests for fatigue of elements of the rolling stock.
During tests study behavior of materials at influence of variable loadings. Usually test is repeated with identical samples and different variable loadings. Loadings can be applied along an axis, at rotation or a bend. The majority of fatigue tests is passed with use of сars for the bend, cars causing vibrations and also with application of the rotating beam.
As a result of tests the endurance limit which characterizes fatigue material resistance is defined.
13) Bench tests for cyclic durability and static durability.
Responsible details of the majority of cars at operation are affected by tension which is cyclically cha
nging in time that creates conditions for emergence of a special type of the destruction called by fatigue. The ability to resist action of variable tension is called endurance of material or cyclic durability. The nature of destruction of material as a result of impact on him of cyclic loadings significantly differs from the nature of destruction at static loadings. Our purpose is to test a prototype at stands and to reveal possible destructions.
Test objective on cyclic durability is definition of number of cycles at which each sample collapses at the set tension. The first sample is loaded with a symmetric cycle with an amplitude of tension and bring him to destruction.
The test cars intended for loading of samples by stretching compression, a bend or torsion at various temperatures in various environments are used to determination of statistical durability.
14) Tests by determination of mechanical properties of materials.
It is known that mechanical properties characterize ability of material to resist deformation and destruction under the influence of the enclosed loadings. Respectively, during tests, the prototype is affected loadings, different in character.
Mechanical tests can be:
- static (on stretching, compression, a bend, torsion);
- dynamic (on a shock bend);
- cyclic (on fatigue).
The test center needs to have a large number of loadings of stands, different in character, to carry out a full range of tests by determination of mechanical properties of materials.
15) Tests by definition of the chemical composition, macro – and microstructures of materials.
The complex of tests by definition of the chemical composition, macro – and microstructures of materials is of particular importance. It is necessary to be sure that the used raw materials conform to standards to provide qualitative finished products at the exit from production, of course, on condition of observance of technological processes of production therefore, entrance control of raw materials and finished products is compulsory procedure for providing high rates of quality and competitiveness in the modern market.
The main complex of metalgraphic researches includes:
- definition macro and microstructures of metals and alloys;
- determination of point of grain;
- definition of nonmetallic inclusions;
- determination of microdamageability and graphitization of material;
- measurement of microhardness and many other things;The equipment on which tests are made have to carry out cutting, grinding, polishing and etching of materials of various hardness and also samples of the most irregular geometrical shape and the sizes.